Miraculous children’s therapy that could finally save adults with cancer

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Scott Davies, a driving instructor from Nottingham, had a form of blood cancer – acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, which affects 650 UK adults and children each year.

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ConclusionThe use of a pediatric-inspired protocol for high-risk AYA ALL patients was effective and well tolerated with improvement in OS and DFS compared with historical data using adult protocols in such populations.

Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Cancer GeneticsAuthor(s): Andrew J Carroll, Mary Shago, Fady M Mikhail, Susana C Raimondi, Betsy A Hirsch, Mignon L Loh, Elizabeth A Raetz, Michael J Borowitz, Brent L Wood, Kelly W Maloney, Leonard A Mattano, Eric C Larsen, Julie Gastier-Foster, Eileen Stonerock, Denise Ell, Samir Kahwash, Meenakshi Devidas, Richard C Harvey, I-Ming L Chen, Cheryl L WillmanAbstractHyperdiploidy with greater than 50 chromosomes is usually associated with favorable prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas hypodiploidy with ≤43 chromosomes is associated with …

Source: Cancer GeneticsCategory: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ConclusionThe findings indicate that 20(S)-GRh2 exhibits beneficial effects against T-ALL through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and could be a natural product of novel target for T-ALL therapy.Graphical abstract20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (20(S)-GRh2) is a major active compound extracted from ginseng, which exhibits anti-cancer effects. In this study, we explored the anti-leukemia effect of 20(S)-GRh2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms of 20(S)-GRh2 against T-ALL were investigated. Our results showed that 20(S)-GRh2 inhibited cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G1 phase through inhibiting PI…

Hyperdiploidy with greater than 50 chromosomes is usually associated with favorable prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas hypodiploidy with ≤43 chromosomes is associated with extremely poor prognosis. Sometimes, hypodiploidy is “masked” and patients do not have a karyotypically visible clone with ≤43 chromosomes. Instead, their abnormal karyotypes contain 50–78 or more chromosomes from doubling of previously hypodiploid cells. When the hypodiploid and doubled hyperdiploid clones are both present, patients can be identified by traditional test methods [karyotype, DNA Inde…

Source: Cancer Genetics and CytogeneticsCategory: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

Authors: Tsaouli G, Ferretti E, Bellavia D, Vacca A, Felli MP
Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer among children. Recent advances in chemotherapy have made ALL a curable hematological malignancy. In children, there is 25% chance of disease relapse, typically in the central nervous system. While in adults, there is a higher chance of relapse. ALL may affect B-cell or T-cell lineages. Different genetic alterations characterize the two ALL forms. Deregulated Notch, either Notch1 or Notch3, and CXCR4 receptor signaling are involved in ALL disease development and progression. By analyzi…

Publication date: Available online 27 July 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Stien De Coninck, Geert Berx, Tom Taghon, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Steven GoossensAbstractThe identification of the rare but recurrent t(2;14)(q22;q32) translocation involving the ZEB2 locus in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggested that ZEB2 is an oncogenic driver of this high-risk subtype of leukemia. ZEB2, a zinc finger E-box homeobox binding transcription factor, is a master regulator of cellular plasticity and its expression is correlated with poor overall survival of cancer patients. Recent loss- and gain-of-func…

ConclusionTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals the antileukemic effect of ginger extract on both, pediatric ALL cell lines and primary cells.

Abstract
Effector lymphocytes are multifunctional cells of the immune system that promote cytolysis of pathogen-infected cells and nascent tumors. Tumors must learn to evade effectors and employ a wide variety of mechanisms to do so. Bispecific Abs (BsAbs) are an emerging cancer immunotherapy approach seeking to re-engage either T effectors or NK cells with malignant cells. Possessing specificity for effector cells on one end and a tumor Ag on the other, these molecules work by attracting effectors to the target cell to build an immunologic synapse and induce tumor cell killing. The BsAb blinatumomab, for example,…

Source: Journal of ImmunologyCategory: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

Treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting B-cell surface protein CD19 has demonstrated impressive clinical results in children and young adults. Despite the promising results from CD19 CAR therapy, up to 40% of patients, who initially achieve remission, eventually relapse. Relapse or non-response to CD19-directed CAR therapy may be due to low or diminished CD19 expression. Such patients would be predicted to benefit from CAR therapies targeting other B-cell surface proteins, such as CD22.Scientists at the National Cancer Institute ’s (NCI) Pe…



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