Acute Leukemia | Medscape Acute Leukemia


Acute forms of leukemia include acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, also known as lymphoblastic lymphoma.

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Elda Pereira Noronha1†, Luísa Vieira Codeço Marques1†, Francianne Gomes Andrade1, Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler2, Eugênia Terra-Granado1, Maria S. Pombo-de-Oliveira1*† and the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Acute Leukemia‡

1Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Program, Research Center, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2Clinical Research Division, Research Center, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a biologically heterogeneous malignancy, which reflects distinctive stages …

The discovery of JAK2V617F mutation in BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs by four different international cooperative groups in 2005 (2–5) led to significant insights on the pathogenesis of these disorders. In fact, this mutation results in a gain-of-function with activation of cytokine and growth factor receptors, and thus of the downstream JAK-STAT pathway (79, 95–98). The JAK2 point mutation in exon 12, present in a small percentage of patients with PV, is able to induce the MPN phenotype through the same pathogenic mechanism (6, 7).
In 2006 the MPLW515L/K was reported in ET and PMF patients (44, 45) and d…

CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that the type of secondary malignancy depends on the number of years that have elapsed since treatment for primary malignancy was concluded. Meningioma, especially, develops many years after completion of primary malignancy treatment. It is therefore necessary to strive for early detection during long-term follow-up.
PMID: 31061250 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Journal of Nippon Medical SchoolCategory: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Conclusion: This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs.

Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children treated for a hematological malignancy or undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on single site, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer compounds such as broad-sp…

Yi He†, Wenyong Long† and Qing Liu*

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China

Super-enhancers (SEs) refer to large clusters of enhancers that drive gene expressions. Recent data has provided novel insights in elucidating the roles of SEs in many diseases, including cancer. Many mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and progression, ranging from internal gene mutation and rearrangement to external damage and inducement, have been demonstrated to be highly associated with SEs. Moreover, translocation, formation, deletion, or duplication of SEs themselves co…

Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body’s own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review.

Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors …

This study proposed a pilot study of a new tool for a reliable and accurate stratification of patients with acute leukemia based on an integrative model of leukemia behavior, cell characterization, and clinical features, in addition, to an evaluation of intra-tumor and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Together our approach allows us to introduce an integrative quantitative approach to use zebrafish and tumor characterization as a prediction tool for the behavior of acute leukemia in young adults.
Materials and Methods
Animal Care and Handling
Zebrafish wild-type (A/B and TAB5) adults were raised and maintained according to st…

CONCLUSIONS: Eighteen, mostly small RCTs did not identify evidence for a difference in terms of mortality. Physical exercise added to standard care might improve fatigue and depression. Currently, there is inconclusive evidence regarding QoL, physical functioning, anxiety and SAEs .We need further trials with more participants and longer follow-up periods to evaluate the effects of exercise intervention for people suffering from haematological malignancies. To enhance comparability of study data, development and implementation of core sets of measuring devices would be helpful.
PMID: 30702150 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsCategory: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for lenalidomide in multiple cancers, including CLL, to identify any disease-related differences in disposition.
METHODS: Lenalidomide concentrations from four clinical trials were collated (1999 samples, 125 subjects), covering four cancers (multiple myeloma, CLL, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) and a large dose range (2.5 – 75mg). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM, and patient demographics were tested as covariates.
RESULTS: The data were best fitted by a one-compartment kinetic model with absorp…

Source: Clinical Lymphoma and MyelomaCategory: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Br J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

CONCLUSION: This analysis may provide a useful tool for the discrepant pathogenesis and drug design of different types of leukemia.
PMID: 30599106 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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