One million teenage boys are denied HPV vaccine that can prevent cancer

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A million teenage boys are being denied a jab which protects against the human papillomavirus (HPV), linked to one in 20 cancers – including cervical, anal and head and neck cancer, campaigners have warned.

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Abstract
Treatment of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma has for decades been a story of very limited success. This dramatically changed when therapy with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blocking antibodies was approved in the USA and Europe in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The therapy exploits the capacity of CD8+ T cells to specifically kill tumor cells. Within the tumor microenvironment, CD8+ T cell activity is blocked by suppressive signals received via PD-1, an inhibitory co-receptor and so-called checkpoint of T cell activation. PD-1 binds to its ligand PD-L1 on melanoma cells which dampens the T cell’s activity…

Source: Cell ResearchCategory: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

eiter S
Abstract
After more than a century of efforts to establish cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice, the advent of checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapy was a critical breakthrough toward this direction (Hodi et al. in Cell Rep 13(2):412-424, 2010; Wolchok et al. in N Engl J Med 369(2):122-133, 2013; Herbst et al. in Nature 515(7528):563-567, 2014; Tumeh et al. in Nature 515(7528):568-571, 2014). Further, CPIs shifted the focus from long studied shared tumor-associated antigens to mutated ones. As cancer is caused by mutations in somatic cells, the concept to utilize these correlates of ‘foreignness’ to ena…

Source: Cell ResearchCategory: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

Abstract
The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cell receptor (TCR) T cells is one of the burgeoning fields of immunotherapy, with promising results in current clinical trials. Presently, clinicaltrials.gov has over 200 active trials involving adoptive cell therapy. The ACT of genetically engineered T cells not only allows the ability to select for TCRs with desired properties such as high-affinity receptors and tumor reactivity but to further enhance those receptors allowing for better targeting and killing of cancer cells in patients. Moreover, the addition of genetic material, including cy…

Source: Cell ResearchCategory: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

Abstract
As a specifically programmable, living immunotherapeutic drug, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells are providing an alternative treatment option for a broad variety of diseases including so far refractory cancer. By recognizing a tumor-associated antigen, the CAR triggers an anti-tumor response of engineered patient’s T cells achieving lasting remissions in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. During the last years, significant progress was made in optimizing the CAR design, in manufacturing CAR-engineered T cells, and in the clinical management of patients showing promise to establish ado…

Source: Cell ResearchCategory: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

t N
Abstract
Bispecific T cell engagers are antibody constructs directed to a tumor-specific target on the one hand and to CD3-positive T cells on the other hand. Blinatumomab is a compound with specificity for the pan-B cell marker CD19. Clinical activity was tested in relapsed and refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL), R/R acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and ALL patients with minimal residual disease. Trials have already been started in de novo ALL. The most clinically relevant toxicities are neurologic events and cytokine release syndrome as with other T cell-activating therapies. The mechanisms of …

Source: Cell ResearchCategory: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research

ABSTRACT Measles is an acute febrile exanthematic disease of viral etiology, highly contagious, being the cause of morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries, whereas it has become rarer in developed countries due to vaccination. Its differential diagnosis should be made with other childhood viral respiratory diseases such as influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus, and exanthematic febrile diseases such as rubella, roseola and varicella. In tropical regions, it should be performed with dengue, zika and chikungunya. Its clinical picture presents the following phases: incubation, usually asymptomatic; a prodro…

The objective of this narrative review is to provide an update on the current status of HPV vaccination worldwide. This will be helpful for clinicians in counseling parents and guardians as this vaccine mainly targets sexually naïve preadolescents. An electronic search of the databases was carried out to retrieve information concerning HPV vaccine implementation between July 2006 and 2017, with special emphasis on the current viewpoints, controversies and ethical issues. Globally, 74 countries have implemented the HPV vaccine in the national immunization schedule, and this vaccine is listed as an essential medicine by…

When Henrietta Lacks was being treated for cervical cancer more than 60 years ago, her cells were taken for medical research without her consent. This ethical controversy became the subject of a 2010 best-selling book, Rebecca Skloot’s The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks, and now an HBO movie of the same name starring Oprah Winfrey.
Despite radiation therapy and surgery, Lacks died from the cancer in 1951. But her cells, known to scientists as HeLa cells, have played a role in many scientific advancements ― and have helped protect other young women from the cervical cancer that took Lacks’ lif…

Authors: Minassian M
Abstract
PURPOSE: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is rampant among young adults and is linked with cervical and oropharyngeal cancers (OPC). As the preventive arm of oral health care, dental hygienists can take the lead in educating the young adult population about risk factors for HPV and OPC. Dental hygienists’ active involvement in educational initiatives may help minimize the spread of HPV associated STDs, prevent transmission of HPV to the head and neck region, and decrease the development of OPC.
PMID: 25295840 [PubMed – in process]

This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see “For Readers”) may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue’s contents page.
PMID: 26158287 [PubMed – in process]

Source: J Pharm Pharm SciCategory: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: J Pharm Pharm Sci Source Type: research



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