Invasive Mold Infections in Acute Leukemia Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation


Invasive Mold Infections in Acute Leukemia Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell TransplantationConference abstracts

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Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. An overview of studies on the frequency and determinants of IFI in pediatric oncology patients in nonallogeneic stem cell transplantation settings is lacking. We performed a literature review in Pubmed and Embase, and included 13 prospective and 23 retrospective studies. The IFI frequency (proven/probable based on EORTC criteria) in nonallogeneic stem cell transplantation pediatric cancer patients ranged between 1.0% and 38.0%, with the highest frequencies reported in hematologic malignancies. The most common fungal…

Conclusion: This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs.

Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children treated for a hematological malignancy or undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on single site, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer compounds such as broad-sp…

In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation.
Regulation of Complement Activation
PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not…

In conclusion, F. keratoplasticum and F. petroliphilum were the most frequent species in this study. Amphotericin B showed lower MICs against Fusarium species whereas the antifungal azoles and the fungicide difenoconazole exhibited higher MICs against FSSC.
Ethics Statement
Samples were collected during routine patient care and the study was retrospective, therefore it was determined by the local Institutional Review Board of the Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná and CAPES that ethical clearance was not indicated.
Author Contributions
PH, AA-H, FQ-T, and JM designed the study….

We report that the bifunctional compounds enhance the interactions between primary human neutrophils and A. fumigatus in vitro, using three microfluidic assay platforms. The bifunctional compounds significantly enhance the recruitment of neutrophils, increase hyphae killing by neutrophils in a uniform concentration of drug, and decrease hyphal tip growth velocity in the presence of neutrophils compared to the antifungal targeting moiety alone. We validated that the bifunctional compounds are also effective in vivo, using a zebrafish infection model with neutrophils expressing the appropriate EM receptor. We measured signif…

Conclusions. ISV is widely used in hematological pts with IFI also in diseases other than acute myeloid leukemia and it is overall well tolerated. ORR to ISV is at least comparable with other antifungal agents. A rec/ref underlying hematological disease impacts both on OS and response to ISV, while having an IFI refractory to other antifungal agents including azoles does not seem to compromise the response to ISV, although this promising result should be confirmed in prospective studies and larger groups of patients.DisclosuresBusca: Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees, Sp…

Source: BloodCategory: Hematology Authors: Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections: Poster III Source Type: research

CONCLUSION: Polyene prophylaxis offers effective antifungal activity with improved tolerability compared to older agents. The potential impact of this treatment should be included in current prophylaxis guidelines of antileukemic treatment.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Source: BloodCategory: Hematology Authors: Tags: 612. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster III Source Type: research

Background: BCMA, a member of the TNF receptor family, is expressed on MM and plasma cells. AMG 420, formerly BI 836909, binds BCMA on tumor cells and plasma cells and CD3 on T cells, resulting in T-cell mediated lysis of BCMA+ cells. Objectives of this study of AMG 420 in patients with R/R MM included assessing safety and tolerability and anti-tumor activity per IMWG 2006.Methods: This is a FIH phase I dose escalation study (NCT02514239) of 6-week cycles of AMG 420 (1 cycle=4 weeks continuous IV infusion, 2 weeks off). Single-patient cohorts [0.2-1.6 µg/day (d)] were followed by cohorts of 3-6 patients (3.2-800 &mic…

Source: BloodCategory: Hematology Authors: Tags: 653. Myeloma: Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Immunotherapy Source Type: research

Conclusion】Our study is a long-term nationwide study of endemics of visceral mycoses among significant immunosuppressive patients. More recently frequent agents were Mucor spp. in leukemia and MDS, and especially Candida spp. with GVHD. Our data provide valuable evidence that antifungal treatment is one of the most important treatments for leukemia and MDS, and SCT.Figure.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

Source: BloodCategory: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions: Poster II Source Type: research

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