Developing Drugs for Prophylaxis of Inhalational Anthrax Guidance for Industry

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In this study, we developed G. mellonella as an infection model for Bacillus anthracis Sterne. We first validated two different infection assays, a survival assay and a competition assay, using mutants containing disruptions in known B. anthracis virulence genes. We next tested the utility of G. mellonella to assess the virulence of transposon mutants with unknown mutations that had increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide in in vitro assays. One of these transposon mutants also displayed significantly decreased virulence in G. mellonella. Further investigation revealed that this mutant had a disruption in the petroba…

Iron acquisition mediated by siderophores, high-affinity chelators for which bacteria have evolved specific synthesis and uptake mechanisms, plays a crucial role in microbiology and in host-pathogen interactions. In the ongoing fight against bacterial infections this area has attracted biomedical interest. Beyond several approaches to interfere with the siderophore-mediated iron uptake from medicinal and immuno-chemistry, the development of high-affinity protein scavengers that tightly complex siderophores produced by pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a novel strategy. Such binding proteins were enginee…

Source: ChembiochemCategory: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research

[Daily News] THE government has embarked on a countrywide fight against brucellosis and anthrax – animal diseases that also pose serious human health problems.

We examined the efficacy of fucoidan-N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propylchitosan nanoparticles (FUC-HTCC NPs) as adjuvants for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA). Positively and negatively surface-charged FUC-HTCC NPs were prepared via polyelectrolyte complexation by varying the mass ratio of FUC and HTCC. When cultured with L929 cells or JAWS II dendritic cells, both charged NPs showed high cell viability and low cytotoxicity, observed via MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay, respectively. In addition, we have monitored excellent NPs uptake efficacy by dendritic cells and observed that combining FUC-HTCC NPs…

Conclusions: Rainfall induced cycling of pH and calcium in soils plays a plausible role in amplifying spore load and persistence in endemic anthrax zones. Observed evidence of B. anthracis favoring soil alkalinity and high soil calcium levels in the environment were linked to physiological conditions that promote bacterial growth, survival, toxin secretion and spore formation; illustrating the utility of bringing laboratory-based (controlled) microbiology experiments into the fold of zoonotic disease ecology.

Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that radiolabeled forms of mutated anthrax lethal toxin hold promise for noninvasive imaging of MMP activity in tumor tissue.

Source: Journal of Nuclear MedicineCategory: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Source Type: research

Bacillus anthracis is considered as a biological warfare agent because it is the causative agent of the serious infectious anthrax disease. Delay in treatment leads to lethal factor-mediated toxaemia which is very critical due to lack of therapeutic options. Consequently, attempts have been made to discover potent lethal factor (LF) protease inhibitors such as small-molecule synthetic 2-thio-1,3-thiazolidine-4-one (rhodanine) compounds. But computed descriptor-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and drug design studies on such aspect are poorly represented. Therefore, an attempt was …

In this report, we extracted the essential oil from the aerial parts of the A. tenuifolia (collected from Khoy), at various developmental stages (i.e. vegetative, flowering and fruiting), characterize them and study their antibacterial activities. Of 46, 51 and 38 components found in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, respectively, 35 were present in all three stages, including oxygenated terpenes such as carvacrol (30.85-34.11), germacrene-C (17.87-16.21), spathulenol (8.96-7.26), β-sesquiphellandrene 4.25-4.11), t-muurolol (3.25-2.27) and α-cadinol (3.29-2.01). We witnessed that the composition of…

Source: Chemistry and BiodiversityCategory: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Biodivers Source Type: research

Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei), the etiological agent of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacterium with additional concern as a biothreat pathogen. The mortality rate from B. pseudomallei varies depending on the type of infection and extent of available health care, but in the case of septicemia left untreated it can range from 50 – 90%. Current therapy for melioidosis is biphasic, consisting of parenteral acute-phase treatment for two weeks or longer, followed by oral eradication-phase treatment lasting several months. An effective oral therapeutic for outpatient treatment of acute-phase mel…

Source: Antimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyCategory: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

ACS Applied Materials&InterfacesDOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b11650

Source: ACS Applied Materials and InterfacesCategory: Materials Science Authors: Source Type: research

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